How to Teach Others

Appendix 1: Program Bookings

[The following two forms may be helpful in cases where the training program is not at the same location all the time.]





(for day of program too!)

ROOM SETUP: (e.g., round tables, school style, Ushaped)


REFRESHMENTS: Date Confirmed and With Whom:

How Many People:

What Types of Refreshments:

At What Times:

SPEAKERS: Fee Confirmed (Y/N)

Training Program Requirements

EQUIPMENT (Date you ordered equipment if you need to rent them):

_____ Overhead Projector _____ VCR + TV (Monitor) _____ Video camera

_____ Flip Chart(s) _____ Slide Projector _____ 16 mm Projector

(+ extra bulb) (+ extra bulb)

_____ Screen _____ Chalk board _____ Lectern

_____ Microphone(s) _____ Extension cord(s) _____ Tripod

_____ Tape Recorder/Player & Speaker

_____ Other:


Handout Resources: _____ Reading Materials: (List under here)

_____ Physical Items: (List under here)

_____ Agendas/Schedules _____ Attendance Forms _____ Name Tags

_____ Evaluation Forms _____ Flip Chart Markers _____ Overheads

_____ Overhead Pens _____ Overhead Blanks _____ Slides

_____ Pointer _____ Videos/Films _____ Audio Tape(s)


_____ Chalk _____ Masking Tape _____ Scotch Tape

_____ Paper & Pens _____ Scissors _____ Thumb Tacks

_____ Ruler _____ Paper Clips _____ Correction Fluid

_____ Direction Signs for Classroom

Personal Accessories:

_____ Water Glass _____ Candy _____ Tissues

_____ Brush/Comb, other grooming items

Other Items:

Appendix 2: Teaching Styles

This appendix is written for trainers more active in the field of adult education. They may benefit from a brief sketch of different teaching styles to help them identify their own style. Check the reference section for books that go into much more detail than I can do here. Understanding and adapting one's teaching style(s) to meet the needs of learners is critical for any committed adult educator.

There are many training styles that you could adopt. Many of the authors listed in the Reference section describe various ways of identifying how people teach and on what assumptions they build their teaching philosophy. These styles have been categorized in many different ways but often into four general categories: (1) emphasis on learning outcomes (behavioral or product centered), (2) directed (trainer in charge or teacher centered), (3) learn by doing (or task oriented and learner centered), and (4) self-directed (or humanist or relationship centered).

None of these styles is inherently better or worse than the others. If you get a room full of one thousand trainers and asked them which style was better the answers would be totally dependent on which style they were most comfortable with and what were the specific needs of the learning situation.

The important thing to remember is that learners also have different styles and trainers must be adaptive enough to try and meet the individual learner's need within a group learning situation. All trainers are not, and should not, be alike yet learners learn from all different types of trainers. It is important for trainers to recognize this difference and avoid trying to make everyone train exactly as they do.

Let's look at some of these general categories in more detail.

Concentrating on Behavior

Orientation to Teaching

New behavior can be caused and "shaped" with well designed environment around the learner.

Basic Assumptions

Training designers select the desired end behaviors and proceed to engineer a reward schedule that systematically encourages learners' progress toward those goals. Imaginative new machinery has made learning fun and thinking unnecessary. Learners often control the speed.

Key Words and Processes

Stimulus response, practice, shaping, prompting, behavior modification, pinpointing, habit formation, reward and punishment, teaching machines, environmental design, successive approximation, sensitizing, extinction, token economy and mastery.

Interpersonal Style

Supportive: emphasis on controlling and predicting the learner and learning outcomes cooperative, stimulus response mentalities are valued.


Product centered.


Clear, precise and deliberate; low risk; careful preparation; emotionally attentive; complete security for learners; a trust builder; everything "arranged"; protective, patient; in control.


Fosters dependence; overprotective; controlling; manipulative "for their own good"; sugar-coating; hypocritical agreeing; deceptive assurances; withholds data.

Concentrating on Process

Orientation to Teaching

The mind is like a computer; the teacher is the programer.

Basic Assumptions

Content properly organized and fed bit-by-bit to learners will be retained in memory. Criterion tests will verify the effectiveness of teaching. The teacher "keeps people awake" while simultaneously entering data.

Key Words and Processes

Task analysis, lesson planning, information mapping, chaining, sequencing, memory, audiovisual media, presentation techniques, standards, association, evaluation, measuring instruments, objectives, recitation.

Interpersonal Style

Directive: planning, organization, presentation, and evaluation are featured.


Teacher centered.


Informative; thorough; certain; systematic; stimulating; good audio-visual techniques; well rehearsed; strong leader; powerful; expressive dramatic; entertaining.


Preoccupied with means, image, or structure rather than results; ignores affective variables; inflexible (must follow lesson plan); dichotomous (black or white) thinking.

Concentrating on the Practical

Orientation to Teaching

People learn best by doing, and they will do best what they want to do. People will learn what is practical.

Basic Assumptions

The learner must be willing (or motivated) by the process or the product, otherwise it is useless to try teaching. Performance "on the job" is the true test. Opportunity, self-direction, thinking, achieving results, and recognition are important.

Key Words and Processes

Problem solving, simulation, "hands on", reasoning, learner involvement, reality-based consequences, achievement, failure, confidence, motivation, thinking, competence, discipline, recognition, feedback, working.

Interpersonal Style

Assertive: a problem-focused conditional, confrontational climate striving, stretching, achieving.


Task oriented and learner centered.


Emphasizes purpose; challenges learners; realistic; lets people perform and make mistakes, takes risks; give feedback; builds confidence; persuasive; gives opportunity and recognition.


End justify means; loses patience with slow learners; intimidating; insensitive; competitive; overly task oriented; opportunistic, return-on-investment mentality.

Concentrating on the Learner

Orientation to Teaching

Learning is a self-directed discovery. People are natural and unfold (like a flower) if others do not inhibit the process.

Basic Assumptions

"Anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential" (Rogers). In other words, people must learn by themselves with the help of others rather than be "taught". Significant learning leads to insight and understanding of self and others. Being a better human being is considered a valid learning goal.

Key Words and Processes

Freedom, individuality, ambiguity, uncertainty, awareness, spontaneity, mutuality, equality, openness, interaction, experiential learning, congruence, authenticity, listening, cooperation, feelings.

Interpersonal Style

Reflective: authenticity, equality, and acceptance mark relationship.


Relationship centered.


Sensitive; empathic, open; spontaneous; creative; a "mirror"; non-evaluative; accepting; responsive to learners; facilitative; interactive; helpful.


Vague directions, abstract, esoteric, or personal content; lacks performance criteria; unconcerned with clock time; poor control of group; resists "teaching"; appears unprepared. Can be a very inefficient, time-consuming process.

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Copyright © 1993, 1999, 2006 Harry van Bommel

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